Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Macroeconomics, Airline Industry Essay Economical can be one of the major factors for the airline industry. Due to the rate of war and terrorist event, the growth rate of economy dramatic slowdown, capacity demand, which gains the low yield to the airline industry. Moreover, oil prices increase also affect their profits. The social sector, which are strongly from employment perspective and safety. The technology in airline industry is fast moving, however itÃ¢â¬â¢s very costly. Alliance gives the opportunity to the major airline to offer customer global route coverage. Ecological factor consists of recycling, the level of pollution and attitudes to the environment. For the airline industry, pollution tends to be very important. Legislation fior the airline consist of employment laws, company law, tax law and their regulation. Redundancy, landing right, health and safety, which are all the airlines, should be considered as a legal factor. Airline industry recovered and it become more attractive for investor. Economical and political factor has always been and continues to be the two major external environmental drivers influencing the airline industry. Read more:Ã Essay on Airline Industry A low cost carrier (also known as a no-frills or discount carrier) is an airline that offers generally low fares in exchange for eliminating many traditional passenger services. The model represented by the (LCC) or low cost carrier is not an innovation, some of the LCC are linked to major and traditional airlines companies, but its evolution has quickly become the dominant management model and through the development of the Internet has experienced the most growth. Though many airlines offer fares at a reduced rate on one or more of their routes at particular times, the simple act of offering cheap fares does not necessarily make them a LCC. Low cost carrier with the specific aim of operating with a lower cost structure than traditional operators in order to create lower fares. Greater efficiency and cost savings have been achieved in a variety of ways, most notably through increased aircraft and crew utilization aided by the use of aircraft operated in a single class with more seats than would be possible with business class. LCC tend to operate a single type of aircraft, a strategy that produces economies of scope in aircraft maintenance and flexibility in the use of crew. Savings is achieved by selling tickets directly to customers (often through Internet and call centre ticket sales) and therefore by-passing travel agents distribution channels, re-engineered business processes and negotiation to gain reductions in airport charges. Tourists such as business passengers with a need for frequent scheduling, inter-flight flexibility with differentiation being offered through personal space and comfort on-board, in flight entertainment and free food and alcoholic drinks, frequent flier programmes, free airport lounges and use of major city airports (typically with higher landing charges). All these features raise seat costs.
Leadership Perspectives and Theories Discussion about two fundamentally different perspectives toward leadership development Ã¢â¬ËLeaders are born and Ã¢â¬ËLeadership skills can be developed. Leadership is seen as an important component of any organisations structure because at all levels in an organisation there tend to be positions of authority. In every organisation there will be people under the control of people with higher job titles and status, for example, employees under the power of team leader, i.e., precisely stating Ã¢â¬Å"subordinates under the control of super ordinates (Finchman, R. et al, 2003).Ã¢â¬ Though there is a wide range of definitions of leadership, it can be generally be defined as the ability to motivate and influence other people to perform tasks and achieve objectives which otherwise they wouldnt be willing to do. Moreover, leadership depends upon the context in which it occurs along with an understanding of the needs and opinions of its followers. But, still there has been a lot of argument and debate concerning the difference between management and leadership. It is true that differences between the two terms can be put neatly on paper, but still it is suggested that the distinctions between the two are vague, with the two qualities usually overlapping each other in business context. This is because it is believed that every manager is bound to possess leadership qualities to be able to work effectively towards the success of an organisation. As literature states, there have been different perspectives relating to leadership development. They basically are the Trait Approaches, Behavioural Approaches, Contingency theories and the Transformational theories of leadership. The trait theory believes that leaders are born and possess certain personality traits beforehand which ultimately lead them to take on a powerful dominant position. Behavioural approaches look for certain ideal behavioural patterns in the leaders and contingency theories state that there is no one idealistic leadership quality and that leaders should modify their qualities and skills according to the situational demands as well as relating to the cultural and organisational context of the organisation. Finally, the transformational theories introduce the emergence of the new leader with qualities such as being visionary, inspirational and participative along with encouraging change. According to theories and researches conducted, it is pointed out that a good leader would be the one who understands himself, his fellow and group members with whom he interacts and the company along with the broader social environment in which he works to be able to choose wisely his skills. Also, he is able to behave appropriately in times of perceptions that are very importantly relevant to his behaviour, i.e., to be able to direct when called for direction and to be able to provide freedom when there is requirement of participative freedom. They are believed to establish direction and are expected to encourage people to come into their strategies and plans. Also, there are some leadership skills which are considered indispensable. These generally include an ability to have an intuition and judgement, the intelligence factor, motivation, assertiveness, risk- taking ability, smart enough to analyse situations and take actions, relevant knowledge and many more. Now, here we are concerned with the two fundamentally different perspectives of whether Ã¢â¬ËLeaders are born or Ã¢â¬ËLeadership skills can be developed towards the development of leadership qualities and their respective implications on the development of management in an organisation. However, choosing one perspective can sometimes be difficult. This is due to fact that leadership being such a subjective topic, it is impossible to believe in a single perspective. Both the perspectives are right to an extent of their own. It is indeed a true fact that there are born Leaders. Moreover, the old age saying that Ã¢â¬ËLeaders are born and not made even gets stronger by looking at all the examples of great and historic leaders, like Hitler, Mother Teresa, etc. These leaders gained their status and respect because of their strong personalities or some in-born attributes which are difficult to come through training and development. It is an elusive charisma in some people which ultimately makes them World leaders and the followers look up to them. And these certain qualities looked in a leader are generally the ones that are the in-grown traits of ones personality, for instance the ability to have an intuition and vision, motivation factor and the natural intelligence. These are all characteristics which differ from person to person. Also, by birth certain kind of talent is already embedded in a few people because of which they stand apart and go on to the path of becoming a leader. For example: A person wh o is an average basketball player will never be able to achieve the skills which Michael Jordan excels at in spite of getting the best training, putting in all his efforts and practising to the fullest. Though, his skills would improve but never to that extent. And hence, we see that the concept of born leaders is existent. But then to what extent can this be seen to be true? Should we believe that the skills by birth are just the skills to be possessed to become leaders, i.e., there can be no self-development for a person lacking the so called necessary skills to become a leader. Here comes a noteworthy point that, by just being born with talent, it isnt necessary that one becomes a leader. Unless and until one works on the pursuit of perfection and improvement, he/she will not be able to able to become a Leader. In fact, all the great leaders who reached their status today did so due to their hard work and maybe went through some sort of learning process. It was necessary for them also to hone and develop their skills and learn from their predecessors. For example : It was seen that President John.F.Kennedy though made a great leader, maybe for some people, due to his charm persona but the fact was that he also had some learning from London School of Economics and he also undertook a Leadership training program in the military services during World War II. Moreover, there is a problem associated with identifying what kinds of leadership skills are apt. When it comes to choosing Leadership positions in organisations, the organisations generally look out for expertise, work experience and the respective seniority levels. They look for people with strong or charismatic personalities, who are commanding and can manage other people well by mesmerizing them with their stage presence. However, these are usually wrong indicators of choosing great leaders. This is seen from the fact that even the extraordinary organisations having the most intelligent, experiences and insightful board of directors have made the errors of choosing the wrong leaders. In California, when there was a rapid-change in the technology sector due to the growth of internet IPOs, HP realised that they needed a leadership change with a leader with a freshly new business perspective to help control its languishing stock prices and stalling growth. For this they hired a lead er who had won quite a lot of business titles and had had an impressing background. But, in the hands of the new leader, the company suffered its first loss, lost many jobs and saw a decrease in their stock prices. But, contrastingly, in the hands of the former down-to-earth CEO, HPs annual sales increased. This showed that leadership plays an important role in the success or failure of an organisation, yet still many companies do not have effective Leadership Development programmes in place and they indulge and invest in it only in terms of emergencies. A research conducted by the Institute of Leadership Management showed that a significant proportion of business leaders today must owe the credit to the gaining of their leadership skills from experiences learnt outside the school, as 12 percent left school before the age of 16 and only one-third of them (31 percent) had a University degree on leaving full time education. These statistics, therefore, state that in order to achieve success, academic qualifications might not be a pre-requisite and leadership skills can be developed through coaching and formal training also with an effective development programme in place. Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart, showed traits of becoming a future leader from childhood. But since he didnt have an academic degree he was not seen to be fit for the description of a classic leader. When he joined JC Penny as a management trainee, he always worked hard but then his paperwork wasnt up to the mark because of which his boss always told him that he wasn t fit for retail industry. At last, he resigned, not to sit back but to open his own firm which gave competition to JC Penny and surpassed it in retail dominance. This example suggests that in spite of not having academic qualification, Sam Walton would have been a great leader for JC Penny, if it had an effective system to tap the leadership potential in him. Hence, the above points suggest that leadership skills can definitely be developed not only through leadership training development programmes but also from real-life learning experiences arising on the job front. Hence, the perspective Ã¢â¬ËLeadership skills can be developed holds more importance than the perspective Ã¢â¬ËLeaders were born. However, no amount of teaching can ever fully help a person to know about leadership. Leadership is a phenomenon which can always be learnt through practical application. Leadership skills can be developed by watching other leaders, i.e., role models and emulating their behaviour. Leaders also enhance their skills by realising the fact that one can never get stuck in a situation. Even if one fails in a task, one needs to use that lesson to enhance his performance in future. This shows that the only failure they see is the failure to not learn from a mistake. They also improve by using the feedback from their supervisors, peers and junior colleagues to get better results. Moreover they learn by trying out new things and then review their performance critically. The best thing about the development of leadership skills and not assuming the notion of born leaders is that, leadership training helps to bring out certain behavioural aspects like character, passion and vision in people not having them and builds them to develop skills which can be used in future for becoming effective leaders. Furthermore, according to an article written by James Brava, teaching leadership skills to front-line managers through the support of the organisation as well as senior leaders can help lead to an improvement in an organisations flexibility to change and productivity. This is due to the fact that if front-line managers become leaders they can make decisions, can then use their own judgement and implement improvement. These techniques will assist in increasing employee engagement and employee motivation and thereby have a positive impact on management development in terms of an organisations performance level. A contrary point to note here is that, certain leadership skills even though believed to be associated with a persons character only, can still be developed among people to a great extent and affect the development of management of an organisation in a worth notable point. This means that if a person does not have skills to lead, he should not fall for the development of non-leadership aspects as there are a number of places to demonstrate ones leadership abilities. There are a lot many number of qualities looked in a person to become a leader which have already been mentioned relating to ability, motivation and sociability. But, the recent developments in the field of leadership show that it is not the just the old-age qualities of authority and intelligence that are enough to become a leader. No doubt, Intelligence is needed but rather than IQ and relevant knowledge, emotional intelligence is the pre-requisite to become a great leader. Emotional intelligence is the key factor which distinguishes star-leaders form the average leaders. Here we see a number of leadership skills that can be developed and how it might affect the development and learning of skills by managers for their own good as well as for their organisations. Emotional intelligence, a quality associated with leadership can definitely be learned, but it requires time and commitment. Hence, it is not believed that a person should have this trait by birth. Although, sometimes genetics do not play an important part in this as our parents qualities of empathy can be imbibed into us by birth. Self awareness is an aspect of emotional intelligence which tends to work for the organisation resulting in increasing its and its employees performance by being aware of the fact that how their feelings will affect themselves as well as of their colleagues. Also, motivation is an indispensable virtual quality of leadership which aims at achieving for the sake of achieving and not for external rewards. Even though, this can be seen as a personality trait to be associated with the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëborn leaders, still it can be developed with course while learning in an organisation when one introspects about his passion for work, doesnt get disappointed with failures and has an urge for commitment towards his organisation. Therefore, it isnt difficult to see the outcomes of motivation for organisational management development. This can be seen from the fact that people with such qualities can always lead to the building of a team with managers sharing the same qualities. Also, as one sets a high performance bar for oneself, so will he for his employing organisation leading to the latters success. Ã¢â¬ËBorn or classic leaders are often seen as the ones having fiery temperaments because their outbursts are often associated with their respective style marks of charisma and power. And hence self-regulation is generally not seen as a good trait of leaders. But self-regulation is a quality which is necessary to be developed among leaders because it leads to the creation of a fair and trusted environment reducing politics and infighting and hence an increase in productivity. More so, it has a positive effect on managing development as employees want to be level-headed instead of hot-heads considering their leaders being calm and less moody. As a consequence, talent flocks to the organisation. In terms of environment changes, management development needs arise which can be taken care of effectively if managers are in control of their emotions. This is because in such a scenario they do not panic and tend to accept the challenges in a positive way. Empathy is another quality which is rarely seen to exist in the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëleaders are born. This is because according to this concept, they usually have attributes which are seen as being autocratic and exploitive. And hence, the perspective regarding born leaders might seem to fail here. Empathy or consideration skill is strongly recommended as a component of leadership due to it being effective while dealing with teams, diversification in organisations and for retaining talent in todays competitive market-world. It is usually developed while working in a team where there can be a mismatch and misunderstanding among the viewpoints of the members. This helps leaders develop their skills of understanding and recognising the emotional makeup of the team leading to collaboration among employees which can ultimately lead to higher job market for the organisation. Also, in order to keep good talent within their organisation coaching and mentoring is necessary for which empathy ski lls are needed. Therefore, a leader having these skills will effectively provide good coaching which leads to an increase in job performance along with job satisfaction and less attrition rate. Another fact which proves that Leadership skills can be developed can be seen during situations when a persons leadership skills might come under a test. This can seem to happen in terms of a crisis as was in the case of Intel Israel. During the First Gulf War when Iraq was resorting to its Scub missile attacks, the operation of the Intels firm unit in Israel was at stake because the civil defence directive had ordered organisational units to close down ensuring safety. But Dov Frohman continued the normal operations as he was concerned about the companys survival and success as he considered that a core aspect of leadership. Also, according to his belief during such situations there are three major points a leader should develop focus on the survival of the organisation in the long-term giving it the highest priority, going against what everyone says and expects to do and finally trusting ones instinct. As a result of following these qualities, commitments to Intel were met for the future of Israels high tech economy as well as for Intel Israel, because of which it today is Ã¢â¬Å"the headquarters for the companys global RD and product development in wireless technology as well as a major centre for chip fabrication (Harvard Business Review, December 2006)Ã¢â¬ . Also, following these three rules not only help deal with the situation aptly but also thinks about the organisations success which is the basic rule of leadership and management development. Moreover, this can be seen as a time for managers to be able to learn and develop skills not only for their own good but even for their organisation. In all organisations it is seen that management generally means conducting, controlling, directing and linking. But an article by Henry Mintzberg who has studied a lot of managers and management in a symphony orchestra, states that Covert Leadership, an aspect which can seem to develop might be better than overtly display of leadership. This is because in todays world knowledge and trained workers respond to inspiration and not supervision because they know what to do. According to him, management in a symphony orchestra can be seen as a good deal of what managing in todays world is all about. The article throws light on the fact that though the conductor manages all its musicians, but he does so in a covert way be it controlling, directing or developing culture. It showed that what is generally seen as conventional leading is seen as operations doing in the context of an orchestra because the conductor got involved directly and personally in all the tasks getting done. Also it was s een that extreme supervision isnt necessary today and that the coordination can occur independently, but however certain amount of power is necessary. Lastly it is noted that though the conductor managed all the inside operations, he was also concerned with the external networking for his orchestra. Hence, a positive outcome of covert leadership on management development is that it not only satisfies employees but in the end it also tends to give a feeling of satisfaction to the leader. And if managers accept this trait of leadership and follow all the six qualities of internal controlling, leading and doing along with external communication, linking and dealing, they can raise the organisation to a high level. Furthermore, it is evident that in todays modern world every manager or leader is faced with the dilemma of being torn between which leadership style to use and when democratic or authoritative. According to the earlier times, leaders were just seen as ones possessing the required intelligence, vision and the ability to empower others. But todays scenario sees the fact that leadership skills tend to be developed and be used according to the demand of the situation. A continuum developed by Tannenbaum and Schmidt concerning the authoritative versus democratic choice of leadership style, shows that any one of these extremes (either emphasis on manager or on the subordinate centred behaviour) isnt apt and that there are a range of behaviours which are best to use when necessary. The decision of what leadership style to use is highly influenced by factors which concern managers behaviour, non-managers or subordinates behaviours and the situational aspects. If a manager understands his p ersonality traits effectively, he is likely to know clearly which style to use. The situational factors such as organisation type (might approve certain behaviours and not others), group effectiveness (how well people coordinate together to resolve issues), nature of problem (depends on whether subordinates have relevant knowledge about the problem) and time constraints (depends upon the criticalness of the situation) also affect the way a manager thinks in decision-making situation). Similarly, a clear understanding about the employees behaviour and their expectations or demands from him, can help him decide to be permissive or coercive. This can ultimately lead to the development of good and flexible communicative relationships among organisation members leading to the creation of good work teams, i.e. the development of management which ultimately can affect an organisations success rate. Therefore, whatever is the case, the implications would always be in the favour of the organ isation with the manager being flexible and insightful so as not to face the issue of leadership dilemma. Finally, in the end wed like to discuss two main important points. Firstly, how companies can create leadership development programmes in order to tap the talent of people showing the capabilities of becoming future leaders. In regard to this, companies ought to create a development profile needed for identifying strong leader including qualities they think should be suitable for their particular company or the industry. On completion of the creation of profile, the company can use a number of effective assessment tools like psychometric tests, employee surveys, feedback reviews etc. to identify these characteristics in their employees. Secondly, we need to discuss critically as to what we need whether it is the image of a heroic leader with a vision, inspiration and charisma or the image of a manager who can organise, plan and control issues in an organisation. In the beginning, it was mentioned that there are differences between management and leadership but they usually overlap. However, arguably it is seen that now there has been a widening gap between managers and leaders. According to studies in the twenty-first century, it was seen that a new perspective of transformational leaders came into being. These transformational super leaders had all the characteristics which were suitable during a hostile and a rapidly changing environment. This new leader had the ability to create visions of what can happen in future and was able to communicate them. These traits indicated the difference between management and leadership according to some writers. But a more recent study of leadership trends stated that such views could be dangerous and that what is more importantly required is the capabilities of change management. According to a lot of writers the concept of visionary leaders is not good as they can destabilize the organisation. For instance, in the opinion of Jim Collins, leaders who are seen to be world class are generally not effective, and it is the senior ordinary managers or executive which actually handle work well by combining both humility and persistence. Moreover, it is believed that the efforts of these middle managers should be appreciated because in spite of them not being top managers they still are implemental in starting and aiming change. Finally these repercussions against the concept of new leaders, leads back to the argument between the distinction of management and leadership suggesting that now leadership destabilises while management drives change. To sum it all, it can be said that though leadership skills are developed but still in-born traits are sometimes necessary and that in reality organisational change occurs due to the help of competent managers and not because of the concept of leaders possessing charismatic visionaries and personalities. (3898 words excluding references) Works Cited Brava, J., (n.d.) Are Frontline Leadership Skills Instinctive or Learnt?. Available: http://ezinearticles.com/?Are-Frontline-Leadership-Skills-Instinctive-Or-Learnt?id=3231942. Last accessed January, 2010. Britains Bosses Learn to Lead at an Early Age. (n.d.). Available: http://www.i-l-m.com/research-and-comment/1449.aspx. Last accessed January, 2010. Buchanan, D., Huczynski, A. (2004). Organizational Behaviour: An Introductory Text, 5th Edition, London: FT Prentice Hall. Donaldson, D., (n.d.) Can Leadership Training Make Great Leaders?. Available: http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Can-Leadership-Training-Make-Great-Leaders-/509240. Last accessed January, 2010. Finchman, R., Rhodes, P. (2003). Principles of Organizational Behaviour, 3rd Edition, Oxford: University Press. Frohman, D. (2006). Leadership Under Fire, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 84, No. 12, pp. 124-131. Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader?, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 76, No. 6, pp. 93-102. Hurst, R. (September 10th, 2007). Is a leader born or made?. Available: http://leadershiptrainingdevelopment.com/is-a-leader-born-or-made. Last accessed January, 2010. Leadership Development Are Leaders Born or Made?. (n.d.). Available: http://www.impactfactory.com/gate/registered/leadership_skills_training_development/registeredgate_1619-9103-73572.html. Last accessed January, 2010. MacDoanld, D. (December 8th, 2009), Why is it so hard for companies to find great leaders?. Available: http://learnthis.ca/2009/12/the-problem-with-leadership/. Last accessed January, 2010. Mintzberg, H. (1998). Covert Leadership: Notes on Managing Professionals, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 76, No. 6, pp. 140-147. Tannenbaum, R. and Schmidt, W. (1973). How to Choose a Leadership Pattern, Harvard Business Review , 51(3), 162-180.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
What is ATM? Before the discussion of wireless ATM can begin, the concept of ATM in general needs to be discussed. ATM, or by its more formal name Asynchronous Transfer Mode, is a basic packet-based networking system designed for the simultaneous transmissions of voice, video, and data. In the mid 1980s, the major telecommunication companies decided that they needed a new network to handle the surge of video and data, along with voice, traffic being sent over their existing networks. From this, the concept of ATM was born. From an increasing need to handle data traffic, which is inherently packet-based, as well as voice traffic, ATM was designed to work as a packet-switched network. In a packet-switched network, all traffic is broken into small pieces, which are easier to transmit than one large chunk of data. The problem with using this type of network design for ATM is that the old telephone network is circuit-switched, or in other words creates a physical direct connection between the so urce and destination during the transmission. ATM, therefore, is designed so that it can handle circuit-switched traffic on its packet-switched backbone. To accomplish this, ATM creates virtual circuit connections over the packet-based network between the source and the destination. These virtual circuit connections provision a set number of network resources dedicated to the connection between a specific source and destination, making it appear to the old telephone network that a circuit connection is established. This allows an ATM network to guarantee the same or greater quality of service for voice traffic as the old telephone network does, while at the same time providing a much greater level of service for data and video tra... ... shifted to wireless IP-based systems. This shift is mostly due to IPÃ¢â¬â¢s built-in ability to handle transmission errors in the realm of wireless communications. Works Cited 1) Ayanoglu, E., K.Y. Eng, M.J. Karol, Ã¢â¬Å"Wireless ATM: Limits, Challenges, and ProposalsÃ¢â¬ , http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/cache/papers2/cs/1647/http:zSzzSzwww.exit109.comzSz~enderzSzwatm.pdf/wireless-atm-limits-challenges.pdf, 1996. 2) Black, U. Ã¢â¬Å"ATM: Foundation for Broadband NetworksÃ¢â¬ , Prentice Hall, 1995. 3) Peterson, L. and B. Davie. Computer Networks: A Systems Approach. 2nd edition, Morgan Kaufman, 2000. 4) Wasi, Atif S., Ã¢â¬Å"Wireless ATMÃ¢â¬ , ftp.netlab.ohio-stat,edu/pub/es/cis788-95/wireless_atm/index.htm, 1995. 5) Ã¢â¬Å"Wand OverviewÃ¢â¬ , www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/~wand/SUMMARY/WAND_97.htm, 1996, 1997, 1998.
Monday, August 19, 2019
This research paper will discuss the African American social standing in America throughout history. It will discuss the highs and lows and the pros and cons of the progression and also the different periods that African Americans lived through since they were brought to America. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The progression of African Americans in America began with a practice called slavery. Slavery is the state of a person who is the chattel of another. It began in 1441 when Portuguese men kidnapped 12 black Africans from Cabo Blanco and moved them to Portugal. This opened the door to slavery in the Americas. A British statesman stated that 'Slavery is a weed that grows on every soil.' The first African Americans slaves in America were brought to Jamestown, Virginia as servants and or slaves in August 1619. In order for slavery to work Africans had to made to seem inferior, one of the main an most common ways to show this was through religious racism ( Aretha, David pg. 21 ) The practice of slavery was then sent to the south were they were put on plantations. Plantations consisted of a large mansion like home surrounded by a large farm where slaves planted and harvested crops and performed other jobs which they weren?t paid for. While on the plantation the slaves ca lled the owner Master or Mistress, they provided the slaves with food housing and clothing.( David Brion Davis, World Book online... Slavery) While on these plantations many of the slaves faced severe consequence for disobedience. They received consequences for not working hard or fast enough, they would also be used as an example in order to control the others. Their harsh punishment would include branding, whipping, mutilation, chaining and sometimes the harshest punishment of all cold blooded murder. Slavery was one of the worst periods in American history. During this period of slavery there were few revolts but many runaways. While slavery continued to spread and get more brutal in the South, the North disagreed with the idea of free labor. Their difference fueled the abolitionist movement. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Abolitionist Movement was the first movement that lead to the African Americans? political and physical freedoms from slavery. ?Antislavery activity began in colonial days. During the 1680's, Quakers in Pennsylvania condemned slavery on moral grounds. In the late 1700's, several leaders of the American revolut... ...han the Non Violent Movement. Front runners like Malcolm X and other influential faces such as Huey P. Newton and Bud Siegel who together formed the Black Panthers all believed that the white man was the problem and that in order to win equal rights that African Americans needed to start fighting fire with fire and bullets with bullets instead of the more passive ways of Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. ( Aretha, Chronicles pr. 261-300) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In conclusion I believe that the law has provided African Americans with equal rights as whites but I believe that they may still appear not to be equal. In the 21st century I belive and know that there are many laws that seem to make African Americans and white equals but there is still much discrimination in the world. I also believe that the racism is not as bad but still exist, it just isn?t as blatant and in your face as it was in the past. African Americans still have trouble getting jobs, being accepted into organizations and colleges or university, But I do believe that we have made a 900 degree turn from the time where ?Colored? and ?White? signs decorated the front of every doorway, restroom and waterfountian in the southern U.S
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Too Much Science? In the 1930s, Europe began to fall under the shadow of socialism with the rise of the Nazi party in Germany, the Communist Revolution in Russia, and the Fascist uprising in Italy. Americans tried to ignore this growing crisis in Europe for as long as possible; even some in the United Kingdom were not unduly concerned with this sudden change. Some people, including authors Aldous Huxley, were startled and put their fears down on paper. HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Brave New World shows an unsettling optimistic front that covers the disturbing reality of a futuristic socialist world. After the war ended, more novels about the socialism appeared, George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s 1984 and B.F. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Walden Two as a few examples, though they are complete opposites on the views of socialism presented. In Walden Two, the tone is very positive. The head of the community, a man named T.E. Frazier, explains every aspect of the thriving communal settlement to a group of curious enquirers. The party includes an old colleague of FrazierÃ¢â¬â¢s, a psychology professor named Burris, a philosophy professor named Augustine Castle, and two veteran soldiers from World War Two named Steve Jamnik and Rogers, along with their girlfriends Mary Grove and Barbara Macklin, respectively. Frazier walks them through all the workings of the Walden Two community, from the agricultural processes, sheep herding techniques, and work schedules to the moral code, education system, and personal relationships. He says that one of the problems with the United States government is that it does not use the scientific process to find out what the people of the nation need and want. He claims that everything runs so smoothly in Walden Two because the community is... ...t provider for people of all ages and races, with equality of the sexes and gentle behavioral engineering that encourages art and science. HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Brave New World, on the other hand, shows how drastically wrong genetic and behavioral sciences could go if allowed to do so. Both novels show how communal living solves numerous social problems, though Walden Two has a much more peaceful setting instead of the mock one created by Huxley. The question both books bring up is how far the human race should allow science to go before we become carbon copies of each other or even completely inhuman. But then, how far is too far? Works Cited Skinner, B.F. Walden Two. United States of America: Prentice Hall, 1976. Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. New York, New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc. [c1932]; Huxley.com, 1998. 16 September 2004. . Too Much Science in Walden Two by B.F. Skinner Essay -- Psychology Too Much Science? In the 1930s, Europe began to fall under the shadow of socialism with the rise of the Nazi party in Germany, the Communist Revolution in Russia, and the Fascist uprising in Italy. Americans tried to ignore this growing crisis in Europe for as long as possible; even some in the United Kingdom were not unduly concerned with this sudden change. Some people, including authors Aldous Huxley, were startled and put their fears down on paper. HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Brave New World shows an unsettling optimistic front that covers the disturbing reality of a futuristic socialist world. After the war ended, more novels about the socialism appeared, George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s 1984 and B.F. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Walden Two as a few examples, though they are complete opposites on the views of socialism presented. In Walden Two, the tone is very positive. The head of the community, a man named T.E. Frazier, explains every aspect of the thriving communal settlement to a group of curious enquirers. The party includes an old colleague of FrazierÃ¢â¬â¢s, a psychology professor named Burris, a philosophy professor named Augustine Castle, and two veteran soldiers from World War Two named Steve Jamnik and Rogers, along with their girlfriends Mary Grove and Barbara Macklin, respectively. Frazier walks them through all the workings of the Walden Two community, from the agricultural processes, sheep herding techniques, and work schedules to the moral code, education system, and personal relationships. He says that one of the problems with the United States government is that it does not use the scientific process to find out what the people of the nation need and want. He claims that everything runs so smoothly in Walden Two because the community is... ...t provider for people of all ages and races, with equality of the sexes and gentle behavioral engineering that encourages art and science. HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Brave New World, on the other hand, shows how drastically wrong genetic and behavioral sciences could go if allowed to do so. Both novels show how communal living solves numerous social problems, though Walden Two has a much more peaceful setting instead of the mock one created by Huxley. The question both books bring up is how far the human race should allow science to go before we become carbon copies of each other or even completely inhuman. But then, how far is too far? Works Cited Skinner, B.F. Walden Two. United States of America: Prentice Hall, 1976. Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. New York, New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc. [c1932]; Huxley.com, 1998. 16 September 2004. .
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The way the eastern civilization would live is how people dream of living today. The eastern peoples put others above themselves. The way the western civilization used to live is how we live today: caring about ourselves for the most part. Even though the eastern side of living is how most people wanted to live, there are some positive characteristics of the western side that are worth incorporating. A common problem today is that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t think. A trait of eastern culture is the being contemplative. There are countless problems that could be avoided if thought would have gone into the situation. Life is a strategy that is filled with decisions. It is inevitable that mistakes will be made, but there will be less if you think before you act. In life there are always consequences for your actions. What most people donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize is that there can be positive consequences. This is something that the western civilization honored; the rewards or the positive consequences of the life they lived. Having the good things in your life isnÃ¢â¬â¢t as rewarding as working for the grand prize. Towards the end of your life, what will you have that reflects what you work for? In the eastern civilization, working with less is held high in standards. As the years go by, people always want more and more but is it really necessary? For example, heated seats and electronic windows are nice in our vehicles but we donÃ¢â¬â¢t actually need them. The eastern peoples learned to work with what they were given, even if it was less than what they wanted. Technology is taking over the world. With this new interference with human life, the beautiful art of work will soon be forgotten. There are amazing things that humans can do as long as they work for it. The western civilization figured this out and put activity high on the list of standards. Life is short and there may be things that we miss if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t work to see what it has in store for us. Both the eastern and western civilization contain characteristics that would benefit the human race. A mixture of the two would be a perfect way to live. Placing others higher in value than yourself is a trait that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t common in the world today. Even though, putting others first is something great, you need to think about yourself too. You only have one life and one chance to make it the best. Do what makes you happy and you will see that others will come with you.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Is it characters, the storyline, or overall message that makes a movie great? There have been numerous movies made, but just a few have had a sincere impact on people. A Girl Like Me: The Gwen Araujo Story did just that. It is about a transgender teenage and his amazing journey to self discovery to live life as a woman. It is a true based television movie the premiere in 2006 on Lifetime Movie Network. It is starring JD Pardo as the main character Eddie/Gwen Araujo and Mercedes Ruehl as his mother Sylvia Guerrero. This true based movie works, because it keeps the viewÃ¢â¬â¢s attention up to the end. The movie begins with Eddie, his mother, and sibling movies into a new house after his mother left his abusive father. Eddie and his family attend his grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s birthday party where Eddie is dress in his sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s pink party dress by his sister and cousins then present to his family to see. As a child Eddie likes to play dress-up by wearing his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes and lip. His strange habits worry her mother, so she has him checked out by a doctor that tells her Eddie is fine. In high school Eddie decides to become Gwen by dressing like a girl, growing his hair, and wearing make-up. Gwen tells his mother that he is spending the night at his best friends, but instead he go to a party. His best friend calls his phone, which his mother answers to discover that Gwen never showed up at her house. The police find GwenÃ¢â¬â¢s body buried in the wilderness wrapped in a shower curtain, which they then inform his family. Gwen was strangled to death with a rope by four yo ung men after they discover that she was a male. The movie ends with GwenÃ¢â¬â¢s murders facing trial for the horrible crime they committed and becoming sentence. On the whole, the film remains a story of a young man who wishes to live life as a woman in world. The movie is completely overflowing with scenes that are uplifting and tear-jerking. An excellent cast of actors helps A Girl Like Me: The Gwen Araujo Story achieve its success. GwenÃ¢â¬â¢s story allows the viewers to see that even though we live in a modern society there are still somethings people consider something be wrong. Some people feel that being gay or transgender is wrong based on the up bring and religious beliefs. This movie helps get the message across that being transgender is a condition that someone is born. A Girl Like Me: The Gwen Araujo Story is an excellent movie. If you like movies with drama and realism than A Girl Like Me: The Gwen Araujo Story is the film for you. During the movie, viewers gain an understanding of transgender people and issues they face in their daily lives. A Girl Like Me: The Gwen Araujo Story, a moving drama about a young manÃ¢â¬â¢s courage to make a daring decision to live as a girl and face the world. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern society there are individuals that still deal with being transgender on a daily basis. If a tragedy like GwenÃ¢â¬â¢s was to occur again, there are now stricter laws on punishment for it. If a hate crime is committed, which none of GwenÃ¢â¬â¢s murders were charged with would end in serious jail time. No one deserves to be killed, because of his or her race, sexuality, or religion. The movie tells viewers that tolerance is the crucial asset for the 21st century and it has got no room for anything else.